Supporters of the MAI (such as the United States, Canada and several EU members) continue to promote similar investment provisions, such as the MAI, through regional trade agreements, bilateral investment treaties, bilateral free trade agreements and discussions within the World Trade Organization, which will be included in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. Before the end of 1998, the British Secretary of Commerce, Brian Wilson, began to announce that the investment negotiations could be transferred to the WTO. Another challenge to global governance through multilateralism is national sovereignty. Despite the erosion of the legal and operational sovereignty of nation-states in international relations, “nation-states remain the ultimate place for authoritative decision-making regarding most aspects of public and private life.” [14] Hoffman argued that nation-states “are unlikely to accept abstract obligations that conflict with concrete calculations of national interest.” [14] After World War II, the victors founded the United Nations in 1945, based on the league`s experience of failure. Since then, the “breadth and diversity” of multilateral agreements has intensified. [3] Unlike the League, the UN had the active participation of the United States and the Soviet Union, the world`s greatest contemporary powers at the time. In addition to the political institutions of the United Nations, organizations such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (now the World Trade Organization), the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) (the so-called “Bretton Woods institutions”) and other technical institutions that were part of the United Nations system — including the World Health Organization — also developed in the post-war years. The formation of this and other subsequent bodies under the administration of the United Nations made the new system more powerful than the old league system. [11] In addition, UN peacekeepers stationed around the world have become a visible symbol of multilateralism. Later, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was created as a defense alliance that used the multilateral form to promote collective security in the post-war period.

The multilateral system has faced increasing challenges since the end of the cold war. The beginning of opposition to the MAI goes back to some people who remained the leading figures of its further development. At the end of 1996, Martin Khor, Director of the Third World Network based in Malaysia, had received from the European Commission a document prepared for the OECD Ministerial Meeting in May 1995 and for future WTO negotiations (Commission of the European Communities 1995: A Level Playing Field for Direct Investment World Wide, 1 March). Brussels). According to the document, Mr. Khor understood that multilateral investment negotiations, which his organization rejected as part of a grand coalition at the WTO, could continue at the OECD […].